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托福閱讀否定閱讀事實題中的否定考點

2019-06-24 17:57     供稿單位: 新航道    

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  否定事實信息題,顧名思義,就是選出和原文矛盾或在原文中未提及的選項作為答案。下面特別舉幾個正確選項和原文矛盾的題目作為例子,在這些例子里,否定關系被設置成了干擾項,希望引起同學們的重視。


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  例 1:(TPO 2 Desert Formation)

  The final major human cause of desertification is soil salinization resulting from overirrigation. Excess water from irrigation sinks down into the water table. If no drainage system exists, the water table rises, bringing dissolved salts to the surface. The water evaporates and the salts are left behind, creating a white crustal layer that prevents air and water from reaching the underlying soil.


  9. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as contributing to desertification EXCEPT

  ○ soil erosion

  ○ global warming

  ○ insufficient irrigation

  ○ the raising of livestock

  解析:C 選項“insufficient irrigation”和原文“overirrigation”矛盾。


  例 2:(TPO 3 The Long-Term Stability of Ecosystems)

  Paragraph 1: Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their

  particular structure depends on the specific history of the area. Ecologists use the term “succession” to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changes—in plant numbers and the mix of species—are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.


  2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?

  ○ They occur at the end of a succession.

  ○ They last longer than any other type of community.

  托福第一頻道2018下半年.indd 31 2018/8/13 15:41:22

  ○ The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change.

  ○ They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.

  解析:C 選項“do not change”和原文最后一句話“Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.”矛盾。


  例 3:(TPO 10 Chinese Pottery)

  Paragraph 3: The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., high-temperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns

  in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry.

  The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb models of the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tang dynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs were outlined in a raised trail of slip—as well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.


  5. Paragraph 3 supports all of the following concerning the history of the ceramic industry in China EXCEPT:

  ○ The earliest high-fired ceramics were of poor quality.

  ○ Ceramics produced during the Tang and Ming dynasties sometimes incorporated multiple colors.

  ○ Earthenware ceramics were produced in China before stonewares were.

  ○ The Song dynasty period was notable for the production of high quality porcelain ceramics.

  解 析:A 選 項“poor quality”(not good quality) 和 原 文“During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality.”矛盾。


  三、總結

  否定考點貫穿于整個托福閱讀考試中。除了上文提到的詞匯題、推斷題和否定事實信息題,在事實信息題、句子簡化題、修辭目的題,甚至總結題中都有體現。由于篇幅所限,不能一一列舉。同學們在解題時,應該對題目和文中出現的各種否定形式保持警覺,避免掉入出題者的陷阱。



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